Nitrosamines are not added to cosmetics but are instead formed when amines (a chemical commonly found in proteins) mix with a nitrosating chemical (a chemical that, generally speaking, adds a nitrate group to its chemical structure). Because nitrosamines form through natural physical processes, they occur in nature and in low quantities ubiquitously. In an effort to prevent their formation in cosmetics, governmental regulators such as the FDA and the European Union Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety have placed strict requirements to mitigate their formation and have enacted associated testing and monitoring requirements. Is it possible that there are nitrosamines in shaving cream? Yes. But if nitrosamines even in small quantities were dangerous, then one would also have to avoid, according to a 1990 review , “Bacon, ham, frankfurters, sausage, cured meat products, poultry, fish, and fish products, cheese, beer, malt, grain, margarine, edible vegetable oils, water, air, and soil.”
In finance, risk is the chance that the return achieved on an investment will be different from that expected, and also takes into account the size of the difference. This includes the possibility of losing some or all of the original investment. In a view advocated by Damodaran, risk includes not only " downside risk " but also "upside risk" (returns that exceed expectations).  Some regard the standard deviation of the historical returns or average returns of a specific investment as providing some historical measure of risk; see modern portfolio theory. Financial risk may be market-dependent, determined by numerous market factors, or operational, resulting from fraudulent behaviour (. Bernard Madoff ). Recent studies suggest that endocrine levels may play a role in risk-taking in financial decision-making.  
NSAIDs may also elevate blood pressure and cause heart failure. The risk of heart attack and stroke achieved special notoriety with rofecoxib (Vioxx), a type of NSAID called a COX-2 inhibitor. It caused as many as 140,000 heart attacks in the . during the five years it was on the market (Vioxx was removed from the market in 2004). The regrettable experience with Vioxx raised awareness about the cardiovascular risk of NSAIDs, and led to further studies showing that the risk is not limited to Vioxx but is associated with all NSAIDs.