Manninen anabolic overdrive 2

A sophisticated study by Koopman and colleagues investigated post-exercise muscle protein anabolism and whole body protein balance following the combined ingestion of high-glycemic carbs, with or without whey protein hydrolysate and/or leucine.[12] Their nutritional protocol was rather rigorous; the subjects received a beverage volume of 3 ml/kg every 30 minutes to ensure a given dose of g high-glycemic carbs/kg and g/kg of a protein hydrolysate every hour, with or without the addition of g/kg/h leucine. Repeated boluses were taken every 30 minutes until t = 330 minutes after exercise. The results revealed that the whole body protein synthesis rates were highest in the carbs + protein hydrolysate + leucine trial. Similarly, muscle anabolism in the vastus lateralis muscle was significantly greater in the carbs + protein hydrolysate + leucine trial compared with the carbs-only trial, with intermediate values observed in the carbs + protein hydrolysate trial. Thus, the authors concluded that, ”The additional ingestion of free leucine in combination with protein and carbohydrate likely represents an effective strategy to increase muscle anabolism following resistance exercise.” This study used rather large doses of added leucine; however, other recent studies have shown that relatively small doses can improve exercise performance[18] and enhance the acquisition of strength.[19] Although the Koopman study indicates that dietary supplementation-induced, post-exercise hyperinsulinemia plus hyperaminoacidemia can have favorable effects on the acute phase response to resistance training, the effects of repeated supplementation on long-term adaptations to resistance training are currently unclear. To shed some light on this issue, Bird and co-workers examined the effects of chronic, high-glycemic carb and/or essential amino acid supplementation on hormonal and muscular adaptations in untrained young men.[66] All subjects followed the same supervised, resistance-training protocol two times per week for 12 weeks. Following resistance exercise, the subjects consumed either a high-glycemic carb, an essential amino acid (6 g), a combined high-glycemic carb + essential amino acid supplement, or a placebo containing only aspartame and citrus flavoring. The results revealed that carb + essential amino acid supplementation enhances muscular and hormonal adaptations to a greater extent than either carbs or essential amino acids consumed independently. Specifically, carb + essential amino acid ingestion demonstrated the greatest relative increase in type I muscle fiber cross-sectional area. Changes in type II muscle fibers exhibited a similar trend.

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Manninen anabolic overdrive 2

manninen anabolic overdrive 2

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