Since a rise in blood creatinine is observed only with marked damage of the nephrons, it is not suited to detect early stage kidney disease. A considerably more sensitive test and better estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is given by the creatinine clearance test based on creatinine's concentration in urine and serum or plasma, and urine flow rate. For this test a precisely timed urine collection (usually 24 hours) and a blood sample are needed. However, since this test is prone to error due to the inconvenient collection of timed urine, mathematical attempts to estimate GFR based only on the creatinine concentration in serum or plasma have been made. Among the various approaches suggested, two have found wide recognition: that of Cockroft and Gault and that based on the results of the MDRD trial. While the first equation was derived from data obtained with the conventional Jaffé method, a newer version of the second is usable for IDMS‑traceable creatinine methods. Both are applicable for adults. In children, the Bedside Schwartz formula should be used.