Guidance on prescribing topical steroids reminds practitioners to prescribe the least strong steroid which is effective for the least possible length of time. A balance must be struck between efficacy and reducing adverse effects. Education is crucial to maximise efficacy and reduce adverse effects. Use of printed information may be helpful (including detail of how to use emollients and topical steroids) and education involving practice nurses to help improve efficacy of treatments and information for patients. Examples can be obtained from the British Association of Dermatologists and the National Eczema Society.
Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile .  The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception .  In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone.  The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field.  The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.
Hi Gail! That sounds like a behavioral issue. I’ve heard when dogs lick each other, it’s a sign of submission, and when they lick you, it’s a sign of affection. It’s literally how they show they love us. It can be problematic though if you dog is nonstop licking.
There are a number of theories to get your dog to stop licking so much. You could consult a behaviorist for a single session and see what answers they might have for you, since they will be able to dig deeper into why your dog might be licking so much—maybe he has separation anxiety? It’s hard to say what to try without knowing more.